Simon & Schuster and Macmillan US have followed HarperCollins and Pan Macmillan in announcing they will not attend this year's Frankfurt Book Fair.
S&S c.e.o. Ian Chapman said: "After careful consideration, and with the health and safety of our employees and industry colleagues foremost in mind, Simon & Schuster has decided that it will not attend the Frankfurt Book Fair this year.
"We applaud the FBF’s efforts to develop digital programmes, and while we will not have a physical presence, our publishers, rights and sales groups are very much looking forward to using other means to meet with their contacts in the international publishing community."
A trade spokesperson from Macmillan US confirmed to The Bookseller the publisher would not attend Frankfurt in person.
According to German trade publication buchreport, Random House Germany, Holtzbrinck's German book subsidiaries and Bonnier's German publishers, plus the biggest independent publisher Bastei Lübbe, will not exhibit at the fair.
Speaking in an online press conference last week, Fair director Juergen Boos said the global pandemic meant it was vital a physical fair did go ahead, as well as a virtual offering, but admitted it could be cancelled if there was a second spike in the virus.