This year's Frankfurt Book Fair saw visitor numbers dip 2%.
A total of 275,342 visitors came to this month's Frankfurt Book Fair over its entire opening period, with 149,921 of those coming from the international publishing business, the Fair has announced.
Last year's total visitor number was 2% higher at 281,753.
More than 100 countries were represented at the fair this year, with 7,300 exhibitors. Nine thousand journalists were in attendance, with the number of international journalists 17% higher than last year.
Juergen Boos, director of the Frankfurt Book Fair, said that this year's event had shown "new tectonic shifts" emerging in publishing.
"We can see the ongoing concentration of the publishing sector, but at the same time there is a plethora of new, creative players, including start-ups, tech specialists, investors and business developers in all the creative industries," he said.